Arab–Israeli conflict - Jerusalem, the Temple Mount and the rebuilding of the Third Temple

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Jerusalem has become a place of increased tensions between Israelis and Palestinians, which have led to a number of violent clashes, a spate of terror attacks by suicide drivers, the horrific massacre in Har Nof’s largest shul, two men being stabbed
by Arab assailants near Jaffa Gate and Rabi Yehuda Glick, who was shot four times by a presumed Palestinian assailant, who
was later killed, two people were stabbed by a Palestinian man at a Rami Levy supermarket in the Mishor Adumim industrial
zone, east of Jerusalem near the settlement of Maaleh Adumim. He was shot by an off-duty security guard. Two Palestinians
from the West Bank Jerusalem suburb Al-Azariya were detained and questioned by police in the supermarket on suspicion of aiding the assailant. There is now a greater mistrust toward Arabs living and working in the city due to fears that they may be
the next terrorist who goes on a rampage. Is this current cycle of Israeli-Palestinian violence a third Intifada? No. But what then
is the cause of all the trouble in Jerusalem?
The riots and violent incidents have been occurring mainly along the lines separating Jewish and Arab neighborhoods and also in mixed areas. About 12,000 incidents of stone throwing, petrol-bomb throwing, and hurling of fireworks, along with hit-and-run attacks, stabbing and shooting incidents have brought this wave of violence, which is directed (almost without exception) at Jews.

The Temple Mount, a major focal point of the Arab–Israeli conflict, is currently at the centre of escalating violence and rising tensions in Jerusalem.

A brief look into the Palestinian (Arab)-Israeli Conflict

In the wake of renewed unjust regulations and persecutions some Jews prefered settlement in Palestine rather than to settle
in somewhere else or to accept assimilation.
In Palestine itself Montifiore's residential homes (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) for poor Jews was founded in 1860. Already as
early as 1856 Montifiore bought agricultural land at Jaffa, Jerusalem, Tiberias and Safed.
In 1870, the first Jewish agricultural school (Mikveh Israel) was established.

After the assasination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881, and in the shadow of enforced assimilation, attacks from Pogroms and
the "Haskalah" being practised by many Jews, the first Jewish immigration movement consisting of Rumanian and Russian
Jews, known as the Lovers of Zion, was established. Another organization, known as Bilu having immigration of Jews on its
agenda had been established in 1882.

Under Zalman David Levontin the first Russian Jews left for Palestine. Following them were 288 Rumanian Jews. By this time
the intensity of immigration to and settlement in Palestine grew not only in Russia and Rumania but also in the rest of Europe.
Jewish leaders Kalischer, Sir Montifiore, Hess, Pinsker and Dr. Chaim Weizmann, just to name a few encourage the return of
Jews to Palestine, setting up of agricultural settlements and industries, etc.
In Palestine a few Jewish colonies had already been established by 1883, been supported by Baron Edmond de Rothschild.
Large scale immigration to Eretz Israel ("Eretz Yisrael" - Land of Israel) and later called "Israel" began in 1882. According
to Jewish tradition, returning to the Land of Israel is an ascent (Aliyah - à l'alya in Hebrew).

Aliyah is an important Jewish cultural concept and a fundamental component of Zionism. It is enshrined in Israel's Law of
Return. In Zionist history, the different waves of aliyah (return to Eretz Yisrael) started with the arrival of the Biluim from
Russia in 1882 (1882 - 1903) followed by the second Aliyah 1904 - 1914 (Jews from Russia and Yemen), the third 1919 - 1924 (Jews from Russia), the fourth 1924 - 1932 (Jews from Poland and Hungary), and the fifth 1933 - 1939 (Jews from Germany).
By 1910 Jews were rapidly coming into their own. This holy city then contained more than 60 000 Jews, and they formed over
two thirds of the whole polpulation. In the main there were 3 different classes - the Ashkenazim made up of Jews from Russia, Poland, Austria and Germany. Their common language, Yiddish. The second class was the Sephardim. They were Spanish
and Portuguese Jews. The third class was the eastern Jews, made up of Israelites from Syria, Persia, Arabia and central

The Balfour Declaration
On 2 November1917 British Secretary of State Balfour pledges British support for "a Jewish national home in Palestine."
HOME and not a STATE. However, in private, many British officials agreed with the interpretation of the Zionists that a state
would be established when a Jewish majority was achieved. The "Balfour Declaration" was later incorporated into the Man-
date for Palestine.  

Arab tension
Religious tension, an international economic crisis and nationalist tension (over Zionist immigration) led to the 1929 Palestine
riots. In these religious-nationalist riots Jews were massacred in Hebron and the survivors forced to leave the town.In 1936 an
Arab uprising occurred, which lasted for three years. The Supreme Muslim Council in Palestine, led by the Mufti, organized
the revolt.

Partition of Palestine
The 1947 UN decision to partition Palestine. On 29 November 1947 the United Nations General Assembly voted to partition
Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state (with Jerusalem becoming an international enclave). Amid public rejoicing in
Jewish communities in Palestine, the Jewish Agency accepted the plan. The Palestinian Arab leadership and the Arab League
rejected the decision and announced that they would not abide by it. Tensions gradually evolved into Arab-Israeli conflicts.
Israeli independence in 1948 was marked by massive migrations of Jews from both Europe and the Islamic world to Israel,
and of Arabs from Israel leading to extensive conflict with the Arab League.
The situation escalated with Israel's occupation of Palestinian territories (The West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip)
in the 1967 war. Source. Historical Israel, Zionism and the Messianic Age. Owen Noome.

This shows a building destroyed by the car bombing in Ben Yehuda street in Jerusalem on Feb 22, 1948 during the Pales-
tine War of 1948. This was organised by Hajj Amin al-Husseini's men. 52 Jewish civilians killed and 123 injured.

In our day and age we witness a systematic campaign of terror and violence orgastrated by Hamas, the PLO and Fatah.
This include inflammatory statements made by Palestinian leaders. In the month of November 2014 Israeli Prime Minister Ben-jamin Netanyahu (Bibi) accused Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas of incitement in Jerusalem. In October 2014
Hamas official Mahmoud Zahar declared the constant cycle of violence in Jerusalem an “intifada." In September 2014, 30 Hamas operatives were arrested by Shin Beth. This terror network operated throughout the West Bank. They planned to kidnap Israelis
in Israel and abroad, enter Israeli villages, detonate car bombs, perpetrate roadside attacks, and execute a major terror attack in Teddy Soccer Stadium. In the latest terror attacks in Jerusalem Hamas congratulated and praised the Arab attackers and called
to continue such attacks against Israeli civilians and soldiers.

Reasons aggravating (motivating) Palestinian assaults and hatred
The Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories (The West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip).
Israel militarily and illegally occupies Palestine.
In 1947, 800,000 Palestinians had been forcibly expelled from their homes by the Jewish militia, the Haganah.
The UN voted in 1948 (Security Council Resolutions 93 and General Assembly Res. 194) to tell Israel to allow the Palestinian refugees to return to their homes, but until today Israel never complied.
The atrocities commited by the Haganah in the 30s and 40s in Palestine and how so many poor Palestinians were killed.
The violent and unjust expulsion of Palestinians.
The rise of Zionism.
Zionist colonization of Palestine.
Israel's policy of ever-expanding occupation.
Land dispossession.
Israel's continued Judaizing of Jerusalem, forever changing its urban and cultural heritage. The Israeli occupation managed to transform the city geographically through illegal settlement building plans, and demographically by encouraging illegal settlers
to move into the city while driving Jerusalemites out of their homes through continuous harassment. Source. Al-Akhbar.
Adding to the Judaizing of Jerusalem is the rebuilding of the Tiferet Israel (Yisrael) Synagogue in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusa-
lem’s Old City. Tiferet Israel Synagogue will sit higher than the Al Aqsa Mosque. The magnificent three-story-tall domed syna-gogue (a symbol of the Jewish “Yishuv” (settlement) in Jerusalem) is located just a few hundred meters from the Western Wall Plaza, in the same plaza as the Hurva synagogue rebuilt and rededicated in 2010.
Israeli attacks on religious sites across the Palestinian territories.
Hate crimes and violence by Israeli settlers against Palestinians and their property.
Israeli authorities have also allowed Zionist settlers to take over homes in Palestinian neighborhoods both in East Jerusalem
and the West Bank, and announced plans to build thousands of settlements strictly for Israeli settlers in East Jerusalem while ignoring Palestinian residents.
More than 600,000 Israeli settlers, soaring from 189,000 in 1989, live in settlements across the West Bank and occupied East Jerusalem, in contravention of international law.
Israeli forces demolish thousands of Palestinian houses and livelihood structures.
Frequent brutal assaults against Palestinians.
Injustices that befall the Palestinians.
Israel is blockading Gaza. Israel does not allow people in or out of Gaza.
Israel is steeling 5/6 of the water resources of the West Bank
Israel built an apartheid wall around and through the West Bank.
Israel assassinated several Palestinian political leaders.
Israel installed more than 500 road blocks throughout the West Bank making travel from one point to another within the West
Bank more difficult than traveling to China.

The big Arab lie: "Jews have no historical connection to Palestine, Palestinians have had their land stolen."
Fact is, Palestinians have no historic connection to Palestine (Israel). "The State of Israel is the land of our
forefathers – Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. It is the land where Moses led the Jewish people, where David built his
palace, where Solomon built the Jewish Temple, and where Isaiah saw a vision of eternal peace.
For thousands of years, Jews have lived continuously in the land of Israel. We endured through the rise and fall of the
Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek and Roman Empires. And we endured through thousands of years of persecution,
expulsions and crusades. The bond between the Jewish people and the Jewish land is unbreakable.
Nothing can change one simple truth – Israel is our home and Jerusalem is our eternal capital."
Ron Prosor, Israel's Ambassador to the United Nations.

"There has never been a Palestinian state governed BY Arab Palestinians in history, nor was there ever a serious
Arab-Palestinian national movement until 1964... three years BEFORE the Arabs of "Palestine" lost the "West Bank"
and Gaza as a result of losing the 1967 Six-Day War (which the Arabs started)."
"There Was No "Arab Palestinian" history before the Arabs created one somewhat after 1948 but especially after the
June 1967 Arab-Israeli War! Archeological sites to this very day continue to yield artifacts with Hebrew writing, not some
fictitious "Palestinian" or Arabic text! The so-called "Palestinian" Arabs were simply then, as they are now, Arabs no
different culturally, historically or ethnically from other Arabs living in any other of the 24 Arab countries from which they
emigrated and came into "Palestine!"

“Several leading scholars of Middle Eastern studies and Islamic history have confirmed that the Palestinians do not
have ancient roots in the area and are trying to invent origins for themselves that predate the Jewish people’s presence,”

The One Land, Two-State solution. A two-state agreement between Israelis and Palestinians remains a thorny issue. A
Two-State solution means; a division of Palestine/Israel into two territorially independant states - one Israeli state and one Palestinian. The borders of the state of Palestine are "based on the pre-1967 borders". Many Palestinians and Israelis, as
well as the Arab League, have stated that they would accept a two-state solution based on 1949 Armistice Agreements,
more commonly referred to as the "1967 borders".

"A Palestinian state in the occupied territories within the 1967 frontiers in peaceful coexistence alongside Israel is the only conceptual candidate for a historical compromise of this century-old conflict. Without it the conflict will remain an open-ended
one." Walid Khalidi, MLit, General Secretary of the Institute for Palestine Studies (IPS).

"The premise on which the peace process has been based is the establishment of an independent Palestinian state in the
West Bank and Gaza Strip with East Jerusalem as its capital. This is also an integral part of what has become known as Bush's vision for the future of the Middle East, i.e., two states, Israel and Palestine, living side by side. This political vision is one of the fundamental bases for the implementation of a future solution based on international legality that calls for Palestinian self determination in an independent state in the territories occupied in the 1967 war." Ghassan Khatib.

"In my vision of peace, in this small land of ours, two peoples live freely, side-by-side, in amity and mutual respect.  Each will
have its own flag, its own national anthem, its own government. Neither will threaten the security or survival of the other. These
two realities - our connection to the land of Israel, and the Palestinian population living within it - have created deep divisions in Israeli society. But the truth is that we have much more that unites us than divides us..." Benjamin Netanyahu, MSc, Prime Minister of Israel.

"Palestinian unity government will accept a two-state solution." Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas.

"November 2017 deadline for the establishment of two states is based on the boundaries that existed before the 1967 Middle
East war, when Israel occupied the West Bank and Gaza and seized East Jerusalem - the areas the Palestinians want for an independent state." Saeb Erekat.

Issues undermining prospects for a two-state solution
1) The existence of Israeli settlements in the West Bank. The expansion of settlements on occupied land.
2) Palestinians are opposing the existence of Israel. Hamas will never recognize Israel. Hamas preaches and engages in
violence and terror in order to destroy the state of Israel and replace it with an Islamic state. In Hamas' worldview, Islamic
precepts forbid a Jewish state in the area known as Palestine, the Jewish people have no legitimate connection to the land
of Israel and Yasir Arafat was a traitor to the Islamic Palestinian cause.

"We won't recognize the Zionist entity. Our rights are still usurped and it's illogical for us to recognize the Zionist entity because that would be at the expense of our stolen lands and our people in the refugee camps.” (Musa Abu Marzouk, deputy to Hamas leader Khaled Mashaal, Cairo, May, 1, 2011)

"Our goal is to liberate all of Palestine, from the river to the sea, from Rosh Hanikra to Umm Al-Rashrash [Eilat].  We do not
want a state 364 square kilometers in size, nor do we want a state which we had to beg for at the negotiating table. Such a
state will never come to be. What we want is a free state, which maintains its dignity, 27,000 square kilometers in size – the
size of Palestine in its entirety." (Hamas representative Osama Hamdan at press conference, Hamas Al Aqsa TV, Dec. 2008).

“The Day of Judgement will not come about until Moslems fight the Jews (killing the Jews), when the Jew will hide behind stones and trees. The stones and trees will say O Moslems, O Abdulla, there is a Jew behind me, come and kill him. Only the Gharkad tree, (evidently a certain kind of tree) would not do that because it is one of the trees of the Jews.” Hamas Covenant. Article

"The question of the liberation of Palestine is bound to three circles: the Palestinian circle, the Arab circle and the Islamic circle. Each of these circles has its role in the struggle against Zionism. Each has its duties, and it is a horrible mistake and a sign of deep ignorance to overlook any of these circles. Palestine is an Islamic land which has the first of the two kiblahs (direction to which Moslems turn in praying), the third of the holy (Islamic) sanctuaries, and the point of departure for Mohamed's midnight journey to the seven heavens (i.e. Jerusalem)." Hamas Covenant. Article Fourteen.

"We will never recognize the Jewishness of the state of Israel.” Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas.

3) A one-state solution would undermine the Jewish identity of Israel.
4) Jews reject the idea of a Palestinian capital in any portion of Jerusalem. The Palestinians want East Jerusalem including
the Temple Mount as the capital of a future state, while Israel regards the whole of Jerusalem as its "eternal and indivisible
capital." In the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel captured East Jerusalem. In 1980, the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Law, which declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel", thus formalizing Israel's unilateral annexation. This declaration was determined to be "null and void" by United Nations Security Council Resolution 478. Source. Wikipedia
"The division of the city as part of a peace agreement with the Palestinians, the prime minister responded, “I don’t buy it” and stressed that Hamas would be at the walls of Israel’s border if Jerusalem were split." Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
5) According to the views of most religious and traditional Jews and scholars belonging to Religious Zionism and to many
streams of Orthodox Judaism, there are no, and cannot be, "occupied territories" because all of the Land of Israel, Eretz Yisrael) belongs to the Jews, also known as the Children of Israel, since the times of Biblical antiquity based on various Hebrew Bible passages. The Jewish religious belief that the area is a God-given inheritance of the Jewish people is based on the Torah, especially the books of Genesis and Exodus, as well as the Prophets. According to the Book of Genesis, the land was
promised by God to the descendants of Abraham through his son Isaac and to the Israelites, descendants of Jacob,
Abraham's grandson. A literal reading of the text suggests that the land promise is (or was at one time) one of the Biblical covenants between God and the Israelites. Wikipedia.
6) "Regarding a Palestinian state, Netanyahu said that three conditions must be met for it to become a reality. First, he said, the Palestinians must recognize Israel as a Jewish state. Secondly, they must declare an end to the conflict. Finally, Netanyahu
said, any Palestinian state must be demilitarized, with security arrangements meeting Israeli approval." Times of Israel.

US and Europe, the only hope for achieving a two-state solution.
Sweden's center-left government officially recognised the state of Palestine. France’s Socialist-led parliament has passed a symbolic vote to recognize Palestinian statehood, despite staunch objections from Israel. MPs in Britain and Spain have
already passed similar motions. RT News.

God's warning
From a Biblical point of view dividing Palestine/Israel is a violation of God's Word. O. Noome.
"I will gather all the nations and bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat. And I will enter into judgment with them there,
on behalf of my people and my heritage Israel, because they have scattered them among the nations and have divided up my
land." Joel 3:2. English Standard Version.
"President Obama made an enormous mistake calling for the Land of Israel to be divided and Jerusalem to be divided along
pre-1967 borders. This is in direct defiance of the Bible. It won’t work, and it will bring judgment to the U.S., according to
Joel chapter 3. Please pray that the President changes his heart and changes course very soon." Joel C. Rosenberg.

The Temple Mount, a major focal point of the Arab–Israeli conflict
Temple Mount (Heb., Har Habayit; Arabic, Haram al-Sharif, The Noble Sanctuary)

"The Temple Mount is one of the focal points of the violence, both in a literal and an ideological sense. What happens there
affects both the immediate and more distant surroundings." Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs.

The Temple mount is at the centre of escalating violence and rising tensions in Jerusalem. Why? In order to have a better understanding of the current situation we start with:

A brief overview of  the 3000 year history of the Temple Mount.
The Temple Mount, the third holiest site in Islam, from where the Prophet Muhammad is said to have visited heaven during his
night journey, is dominated by three Muslim structures; the al-Aqsa Mosque, the Dome of the Rock and the Dome of the Chain.
The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism. It was where two successive Hebrew Temples once stood. The first temple was built by King Solomon the son of King David in 957 BCE and destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE The second was con- structed under the auspices of Zerubbabel. Construction of the Second Temple began under Cyrus in around 538 BCE, and completed in 515 BCE.

Rebuilding of the Temple in the days of Herod (Herod's Temple)

Herod the Great became king of Judea in 40 B.C. In the eighteenth year of his reign undertook a very great work, that is, to build
of himself the temple of God, and make it larger in compass, and to raise it to a most magnificent altitude, as esteeming it to be
the most glorious of all his actions, as it really was, to bring it to perfection; and that this would be sufficient for an everlasting memorial of him. The Jews were afraid that he would pull down the whole edifice, and not be able to bring his intentions to perfec-tion for its rebuilding; and this danger appeared to them to be very great, and the vastness of the undertaking to be such as could hardly be accomplished. But while they were in this disposition, the king encouraged them, and told them he would not pull
down their temple till all things were gotten ready for building it up entirely again. So Herod took away the old foundations, and
laid others, and erected the temple upon them,.....Herod's work more than doubled the size of the Temple building and the
Temple Mount itself was greatly expanded to a plaza area measuring about 2,575 by 985 feet, with eight gates. Flavius Josep-
hus. Book XV. Chapter 11. 1 - 7.

Herod's temple, the temple of Jesus' day, was a huge and magnificent structure, a wonder of the ancient world. This was the
same Temple, which took 46 years to complete. 70 AD - the Romans under command of Titus destroyed the Temple, 7 years
after its completion.

Jerusalem was taken in the second year (A.D. 70) of the reign of Vespasian (reigned 1 July 69 – 23 June 79),
on the eighth day of the month Gorpeius (Elul)
"Elul" is the Sixth Month of the year, counting from "Nisan," called in the Chumash, "the first month.
It is called "the month of repentance," "the month of mercy," and "the month of forgiveness."

Over the years, the Temple Mount as a religious and holy site suffered tremendously under different world empires and move-
ments - the Babylonians, Muslims, Crusaders and Romans. The Temple Mount is a silent witness to the desecration and destruction of the first and second Temples (the desecration of the Temple by the erection of a Zeus statue in its sacred
precincts by Antiochus Epiphanes. Titus Annius Rufus who caused a plough to be passed over the site of the ancient Temple
in order to desecrate it forever.
Hadrian who is said to have erected a temple to the Roman god Jupiter on the spot where the ancient Jewish Temple once
stood). And then there was the anguish, fear, suffering, bloodshed, devastation, division, destruction, persecution, death and
an enormous loss of life (Jews, Muslims and Christians) on the Temple Mount.

The Temple Mount is the trapezoid-shaped, walled-in area in the southeastern corner of the Old City of Jerusalem. The four walls surrounding it date back – at least in their lower parts – to the time of the Second Jewish Temple, built at the end of first century BCE These huge supporting walls, partly buried underground, were built around the summit of the eastern hill identified as
Mount Moriah , the site traditionally viewed as the location of where Abraham offered his son Isaac as a sacrifice. The trapezium shaped platform measures 488 m along the west, 470 m along the east, 315 m along the north and 280 m along the south,
giving a total area of approximately 150,000 m2 (37 acres).

The 17th of Tammuz is a fast day and the beginning of the three week period known in Hebrew as bein hameitzarim - "between
the straits" - which commemorates the destruction of both the first and second Holy Temples, concluding with a 25 hour long
fast on the 9th of Av, the day of the destruction of the two Temples. The month of Tammuz has been marked for the past two thousand years of Jewish history by weeping and mourning for the Holy Temple.

In the days of Hadrian
In A.D.135, Hadrian built the largest temples of Jupiter in place of the Jewish temple on the Temple Mount. He also built a
temple to Jupiter in Baalbek, Lebanon, that is still standing today. We know that Hadrian wanted to make himself the object of worship in his Temple to Jupiter in Jerusalem and he set up a statue of himself riding a horse on the Temple mount at the El-Kas fountain. Tuvia Sagiv believes that Hadrian, in the ultimate act of arrogance and insult to the Jews, placed this horse statue in
the precise location of where the Holy of Holies stood from the Jewish temple. Reminds us of the words of Jesus in Matthew
24:15, "Therefore when you see the abomination of desolation which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in
the holy place (let the reader understand)." The Temple of Jupiter stood from 135 AD, until the time of Hadrian's later successor Constantine in 325 AD. Constantine "did right in the sight of God" and was as anti-pagan as any of the most righteous Jewish Kings of the Old Testament. He utterly destroyed Hadrian's Temple of Jupiter on the temple mount. The temple of Jupiter on
the temple mount, lay in ruins for almost 350 years until the Muslims arrived, except for a unsuccessful attempt by the Jews
to rebuilt the temple around 400 AD. Source.

The Third Temple
In AD 363, Emperor Julian, on his way to engage Persia, stopped at the ruins of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. Julian granted the Jews permission to begin rebuilding the Temple. Rebuilding work began, but was ended by the Galilee earthquake of AD 363.
The Temple area was left in ruins for many years.
The Jews apparently took to the task with much enthusiasm, only to have their hopes crushed less than a year later when Julian was killed in battle. With his death, his protection disappeared.

The Muslim Period
This desecration was not redressed until the Muslim conquest of the city by the Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab in 638. He ordered
the clearing of the site and the building of a "house of prayer". Years later (691), the Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik built the Dome
of the Rock to enshrine the outcrop of bedrock believed to be the "place of the sacrifice" on Mount Moriah. In 715 the Caliph al-Walid I built the large mosque at the southern end of the Haram, which came to be called al-Aqsa (al-Aqsa Mosque).

It is said:
The Dome of the Rock was a temple of the Jews, built by a Jew named Abd el Malik in 691 A.D. using a facade design seen
on second century coins in the Bar Kochba Revolt . The doorway resembles the Temple built by Herod the Great. Abd el Malik
was a Jew accepted by the early Muslims and a first tradition was made praying towards the temple, now called "Dome of the
Rock" In 1165 A.D. Moses Maimonides visited the Dome of the Rock and dedicated it as a Holy Place for Judaism . But in the interim time the Muslims turned away from the Dome and prayed to Mecca, then came the Crusades ,and the Christians built
the El Aqsa Mosque as a CHURCH until the time of Saladin in 1187 A.D. conquered the site and turned the Crusader Church
into the Mosque near by the Dome of the Rock. From the time of Saladin the city was free to all comers to visit and nothing
more was said of the Dome of the Rock by the Muslims, until in 1947 A.D. The Mufti Haj Amim , dedicated the Dome of the
Rock to be a Muslim Holy Place . covering up the history of it being a Jewish building. Now the Koran says nothing about Jerusalem and nothing about the Dome of the Rock , so the history after that time is what causes the conflict of who con-
quered what and who the place belongs to, as it signifies domination over the whole world, in a figurative and religious sense.

The Arabs are mostly afraid that giving up control of the Temple Mount area , would destabilize their own peoples throughout
the Middle East of the Islamic World, because their core solidarity , a rule by Religious Governance is lost if the Jews take
over the site. So, it means to the Muslims , a cause for world war, if the Jews were to rule the site unilaterally.

Israel and Jerusalem conquered
In 1917 the British forces defeated Turkey (Ottoman Empire) and conquered Israel and Jerusalem, including the Temple Mount.
In 1948 war Israel captured West Jerusalem, Jordan took control of East Jerusalem and the entire old walled city. The Temple Mount fell under Jordanian rule. Jews in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City were expelled, denied them access to Jewish holy
sites, many synagogues were demolished or or converted to stables and hen-houses. The Jewish Cemetery on the Mount of
Olives was desecrated and historic and religiously significant buildings were demolished and replaced by modern structures.
After the establishment of the state of Israel, Jerusalem was declared its capital city. Jordan formally annexed East Jerusalem
in 1950, subjecting it to Jordanian law, and in 1953 declared it the "second capital" of Jordan. Wikipedia.

Then came the Six-Day-War in 1967. Israeli soldiers captured the Temple Mount, East Jerusalem and the West Bank. Jewish
and Christian access to the holy sites inside the old walled city was restored.The status quo on the Temple Mount was institu-
ted by Defense Minister Moshe Dayan. The status quo was in fact the de facto Israeli relinquishment (abandonment) of the
Temple Mount that after it was in Israeli hands. The Islam Waqf was allowed to retain authority over the Temple Mount. The
Islamic Waqf has managed the Temple Mount since the Muslim reconquest of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1187. Management
of the Temple Mount by the 'Waqf is one of the arrangements of the status quo. This arrangement entrusted the Jews holiest
place to the Muslim religion. Other arrangements are: 1) Jews are permitted to visit the Temple Mount, but forbidden to pray
there so as not to offend Muslims. There are two prayer areas, the Temple Mount for the Muslims on the Temple Mount and the Jews at the Western Wall (The Kotel, or Western Wall, is an outer retaining wall of the Temple Mount. 2) Israeli police maintain
law and order in the sacred compound.

Are you aware that:
Jews and all non-Moslems are denied the right to pray in groups, and even as individuals on the Temple Mount.
Only Jews are forced to wait an extended period of time before being allowed through security.
Only Jews are forced to present their ID’s to the police.
Only Jews are followed and harassed by Israeli police and Muslim Wakf guards throughout the entire visit on the Mount.
Only Jews are arrested for crimes such as prayer, closing eyes, bowing down or singing.

The struggle for the Temple Mount and increasing tensions. (Who owns the Temple Mount?)
The status quo is in place and Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu (bibi) "reiterated Israel's commitment to preserve the status
quo on the Temple Mount as well as Jordan's special status at the site." There will be no change in the status quo on the Temple Mount. This was in connection with the Jews determination to pray on the Temple Mount. Netanyahu, on the other hand, is
very intent on forbidding Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount. He was even considering a total ban on Jewish entry to the Temple.
Irrespective this stance, Jews are adamant in pressing the right to pray on the Temple Mount. This persistence is provoking the Arabs who accuse Israel of attempting to “Judaize” the site and trying to destroy the Al-Aqsa Mosque. "There is no meaning to
any other place without the Temple Mount,” said Michael Ben Ari, a far-right nationalist and former member of Knesset."
In April 2014 Deputy Minister Eli Ben Dahan said; "The Religious Affairs Ministry is crafting new rules that would allow Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount." The regulations would reverse longstanding orders banning Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount.
More Rabbis are adding their voices to growing calls to allow Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount.

In the meantime Jews and devoted Jewish worshipers continue to stream to the holy site day after day despite of growing
Arab violence and blatant incitement against Jews on Temple Mount. Yehudah Glick, Temple Mount activist in Jerusalem,
was threatened all the time before being shot three times by an Islamic Jihad operative. More recently Jerusalem Mayor Nir
Barkat visited the site. The Waqf condemned the visit. On Monday, October 13, the 5th day of Sukkot (2014), Knesset Member
and Deputy Speaker Moshe Feiglin made his ascent to the Temple Mount. "The increase of Jews ascending the Mount, in-
cluding a public figure, is not a 'provocation' and certainly not a violation of the status quo." Said Knesset Speaker Yuli Edel-

As part of ongoing efforts  to educate and raise people's consciousness, the Temple Institute conducts aliyot, (lit: going up;
making a pilgrimage), to the Temple Mount. These aliyot are conducted in accordance with halachic requirements, and take
place during weekday mornings, as these are the only hours that Jews are presently allowed to ascend the Mount. Also, in
keeping with the oppressive "rules" set by the Wakf. The aliyot are led by Rabbi Chaim Richman of the Institute.
To visit the Temple Mount in accordance with halacha (Jewish law), one needs to be accompanied by an experienced guide, expertly versed in the laws and traditions particular to the Temple Mount. Source. The Temple Institute, Jerusalem.

The organization "Women for the Holy Temple" has begun a training course for women in guiding Jewish worshipers on the
Temple Mount. The twenty women who have registered for the course are being taught the halachot (laws) concerning the preparation required before ascending the Temple Mount as well as the halachot of Mora Mikdash - the conduct required to
show proper reverence for G-d when visiting the Temple Mount - in the places permitted by Torah.

Call for the destruction of Muslim holy sites on the Temple Mount and the building of a Third Jewish Temple
Besides advocating for non-Muslim rights on the mount, several Jewish and Christian Zionist Movements call for the destruction
of Muslim holy sites and the building of a Third Jewish Temple.

Temple Mount movements claiming civil rights for Jews, Jewish right of freedom of access and prayer and free worship on
the Temple Mount:
The Temple Mount movement, The Temple Mount Faithful, the Temple Institute, Women for the Temple Mount, Organisation for
the Renewal of the Temple (ORT), Women in Green, Matot Arim, Manhigut Yehudit, The Nascent Sanhedrin, The Organisation
for Human Rights on Temple Mount, El Har Hashem (The Temple Mount Advocacy Council), Hatenua Lekinun HaMikdash (Movement for Temple Renewal), Nashim Lman Har HaBayit (Women of the Mount), El Har HaMor and the newly formed
Movement of Students for the Temple Mount.

Welknown secular Jew and Temple Mount activist Linda Olmert, who is passionate about restoring and protecting the right of
Jews to pray on the holy site, doesn’t wish to see a third Holy Temple built before the coming of the messiah. Olmert works
closely with Yehudah Glick. She is the Deputy Director of HALIBA ( The Initiative for Jewish freedom on the Temple Mount)
founded by The Israel Independence Fund and The Temple Mount Heritage Foundation.

Yehuda Glick, an American-born Israeli rabbi, is a welknown Temple Mount activist. He is executive director of Haliba organi-
sation for Jewish freedom on the Temple Mount. The organisation is often called The Temple Mount Heritage Foundation.
Muslims usually reacted angrily to his presence on the Temple Mount. Same goes for Knesset Member Moshe Feiglin.
Quite recently Baruch Marzel demanded the destruction of al-Aqsa. They (the Jews) own the Temple Mount. It belongs to
them and want to clean the site from all the terrorists and anti-Semites, and give it back to the Jews to build the Third Temple.
Ariel Sharon's visit to the holy site in 2000 sparked the Second Intifada (second Palestinian uprising). Palestinian leader
Marwan Barghouti, at a later stage, told reporters: "The intifada did not start because of Sharon's visit to Al-Aqsa, although
that was the last straw. The intifada began because of the desire to put an end to the occupation and because the Palestinians
did not approve of the peace process in its previous form." (Jerusalem Times, June 8, 2001).

Goal of the Temple Mount Faithful movement:
"... the building of the Third Temple on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem in our lifetime in accordance with the Word of G-d and
all the Hebrew prophets, and the liberation of the Temple Mount from Arab/Islamic occupation so that it may be consecrated
to the Name of G-d."

The Temple Institute's ultimate goal is to see Israel rebuild the Holy Temple on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem in our time and to reinstate sacrificial worship.

The Temple Institute interprets the opinion of the Rambam (Maimonides) as saying that Jews should attempt to build
the Temple themselves, and have a mitzvah (obligation) to do so if they can. The Rambam's opinion, however, is a
controversial one and has aroused substantial opposition. The Temple Institute's view of the Rambam's opinion is not
universally accepted by Maimonides scholars. According to seventeenth-century Rabbi Yom Tov Lipman Heller in his
commentary on the tractate Yoma, the Rambam did not say that any Jew can build the future Temple, only the Messiah.
According to Maimonides, any Jew who starts rebuilding the Temple is a potential Messiah.Source. Wikipedia.

“It is not enough to wait and pray for the Third Temple, It is a Biblical obligation to build it.”
The Temple Institute.

Building the temple, says the Temple Institute, would “usher in a new era of universal harmony and peace,” as prophesied in
the Bible.

1)Preparations for the Temple
The Temple Institute created ritual vesels that can actually be used in the Holy Temple to be rebuilt soon. Ritual vesels include
the Table of the show bread, the copper laver and stand, the Mizrak, Frankincense Censer, the incense chalice, the menorah,
the incense altar, silver trumpets, gold-plated shofar, The silver-plated shofar, the copper laver and stand.
The High Priest's Hoshen (breastplate), Ephod garment for the uniform of the High Priest, the Tzitz (golden crown) and me'il techelet (blue robe) have been completed. These vessels and priestly garments are being fashioned according to the exact
Biblical requirements.The me'il techelet (blue robe) of the High Priest, (cohein gadol), is now nearing completion.

2)Holy Temple blueprints
In 2011, Rabbi Chaim Richman of the Temple Institute revealed for the very first time blueprints for the Holy Temple Complex.
In 2014, the Temple Institute created a $100,000 Indiegogo campaign to draft plans (plans for construction project) for a Third Temple.

1) A reconstruction or replica of the Menorah created by the Temple Institute
2) The Me'il (mantle) created by the Temple Institute.
 The me'il was a sleeveless, blue (techelet) robe, woven in a single piece. The opening in the center for
the High Priest's head to pass through was woven, not cut or torn (Exodus 28:32). The lower hem of the garment was
fringed with 72 small golden bells alternating with pomegranate-shaped tassels of blue (turquoise), purple and scarlet
wool (Exodus 28:33-34).
The eight garments worn by the High Priest (cohein gadol) all year round: The ephod, breastplate (choshen),
robe (me'il), tunic (ketonet), turban (mitznefet), belt (avnate), crown (tzitz), and pants (michnasayim) . Exodus. 28:4.

On the evening of Tuesday, August 20th, 2013, the 14th day of Elul, 5773, the Temple Institute, in cooperation with Mishmeret Kehunah (the Organization for the Renewal of the Priestly Shifts) and other Temple organizations inaugurated a new school dedicated to teaching kohanim the 'lost' art of performing the daily Tamid service in the Holy Temple. Cohanim (plural of Cohen)
are the priestly family of the Jewish people, members of the Tribe of Levi.

4)A Sanhedrin is needed. The Sanhedrin was dissolved in 358 CE by the edict of the Byzantine emperor. There had been
several attempts to re-establish the Sanhedrin. The latest attempt to re-establish the Sanhedrin was in 2004. This Sanhedrin
is generally referred to as the "nascent Sanhedrin", or the "developing Sanhedrin" or simply "the Rabbinical Court of 71 judges." The Sanhedrin includes a President (Nasi), a Chancellor (Av beis din), and sixty-nine general members.
"The task of building the Sanhedrin will take some time." Says Nasi, Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz. He spoke about gradually building
up the ancient institution, which would take several generations. The Sanhedrin is in the position to appoint a High Priest (kohen gadol) for Temple service. The Great Sanhedrin alone had the right to appoint, or confirm the appointment of, the High Priest.

5)Animal Sacrifices
The 71 members of the "Re-established Sanhedrin" say they want to begin sacrificing animals again, despite the absence of
the Temple, the ritual altar and all the required implements listed in the Bible. Rabbi Dov Stein of the group admitted.
"We want to do the sacrifice, but we have political problems," Stein said. "We hope there will come a time when the govern-
ment will agree. We will push for that to happen.” (
Employees of the Temple Institute believe that they do not have to a rebuilt a Jewish Temple to resume animal sacrifices. All
they need is an altar, which they have, and permission from the Israeli government. The Bible itself nowhere teaches that animal sacrifices require a temple in Jerusalem.
Many Jews are opposed to animal sacrifices, and would oppose things such as sacrificing a red heifer. Ehud Olmert, mayor of Jerusalem.

6)The red heifer
"In our own times, the commandment of the red heifer takes on more and more significance. For without it, the Divine service
of the Holy Temple cannot be resumed. For G-d has ordained that its ashes alone are the single missing ingredient for the
reinstatement of Biblical purity - and thereafter, the rebuilding of the Holy Temple". See. Numbers 19. Temple Institute.

A red heifer is a red cow, the ashes of which were used for the ritual purification. The Temple Institute is still searching for
a perfect red heifer which is a prerequisite for the restoration of purity and the ultimate resumption of the Divine service in the
Holy Temple. Learn more about the red heifer. Visit

Palestinian outcry
Palestinian Authority Prime Minister Rami Hamdallah toured the Temple Mount compound. He proclaimed that “there will not
be a Palestinian state without East Jerusalem as its capital.”
President Mahmoud Abbas warned that the Palestinians will not allow Israeli extremists to “contaminate” the Temple Mount,
and said that allowing Jewish prayer at the site would risk a global religious war.
“Keep the settlers and the extremists away from Al-Aqsa and our holy places,” Abbas demanded. “We will not allow our holy places to be contaminated."
Hamas works with the Islamic Movement (an Israeli organization that promotes Islam among Israel’s Arab citizens) to keep
Jews from entering the Temple Mount compound, by retaining a group of young men to harass and throw stones at Jewish
Palestinian extremists and radicals, incited by Hamas and Muslim leaders, continue to discourage Jews and Christians from visiting the Temple Mount. They go as far as trying to breach the status quo. Have the Jews started a "religious war" by visiting
the Temple Mount? I don't think so.

The Arabs, Fatah and Hamas claim that Jews intent to destroy the Al-Aqsa Mosque, and build the third Temple on the Temple
Mount. "Al-Aqsa is a part of the religion, creed and faith of every Muslim, so he will never accept any violation or any attack
against it, or any desecration of its sanctity, or any non-Muslim sovereignty over even a millimeter of its land and the land of Jerusalem.” Supreme Shari’ah Judge Mahmoud Al-Habbash.
It is highly unlikely that the Israeli govenment will destroy the Al-Aqsa Mosque. However, several Jewish and Christian Zionist Movements hold a different opinion.

Although the site is considered the holiest place in all of Judaism and the third holiest in Islam, it has no sanctity for Muslims.
The Mount has completely been abandoned to the Muslim Authorities and is used by Muslims for the following blasphemous activities: The site has been desecrated and pillaged by means of illegal digs causing unparalleled destruction of archeolo-
gical evidence of the First and Second Temple periods and the historical Jewish presence on the Mount. Endless incitement against the Jewish State and Nation from within the Mosques. Play football on the Haram al-Sharif. Physical attacks against
Jews on the Mount and down below at the Western Wall.

The Palestinian lie. (The Temple Denial).
Jewish and Christian claims that the site was once home to the First and Second Temples are unsubstantiated myths.

Jews divided over the Temple Mount
Not all Jews, religious movements and Rabbis are in favour of entering or visiting the Temple Mount. Ultra-Orthodox (Haredi)
rabbis, leading Mizrahi-Sephardic rabbis and the Chief Rabbinate of Israel reject the idea of changing the status quo and forbid Jews from entering or visiting the Temple Mount. Rabbi Yitzhak Yosef (Sephardi chief Rabbi) said "that it is forbidden for Jews
to go to the Temple Mount and rebuked rabbis who call on Jews to go to the holy site, which contradicts the overwhelming
majority of halakhic authorities that forbid entry to the Temple Mount compound to Jews because of its holiness. This is also
the position of the Chief Rabbinate." The prohibition issued by the Chief Rabbinate – a government authority – relied on earlier halachic decisions designed to prevent Jews from entering forbidden places by mistake.

Sign near entrance to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem warning Jews and non-Jews alike against entering.
Photo. Bantosh.

Rav Tzvi Yehudah Kook and Rav Avraham Elkana Shapira, both Chief Rabbis and heads of the Zionist Merkaz HaRav yeshiva in Jerusalem made a call to Jews not to ascend to the Temple Mount. They were followed by Chief Sephardic Rabbi (Rav) Rabbi Shlomo Amar, former Chief Sephardic Rabbi Rav Eliyahu Bakshi Doron, Rav Shalom Cohen, Old City Rabbi Rav Avigdor Neven-
tzal and Kotel Rabbi, Rav Shmuel Rabinovich and Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi, Rav Yonah Metzger.

Some Jews disagree with this notion:
There is not a single halachah that bans Jews from entering areas on the Temple Mount that are outside of the area where the
Holy Temple and its courtyards stood. These permitted areas are well known and there is no reason for Jews not to enter them.
On the contrary, there s a positive commandment, known as Mora Mikdash - (showing reverence for G-d on the site of the Holy Temple) - to visit the site of the Holy Temple even when the Holy Temple is not standing, as explained by Maimonides, (Mishnah Torah, Hilchot Beit HaBechirah, 7, 1-7) For whatever reasons the chief rabbis have reissued the ban on entering the Temple
Mount, one thing is for certain: the reason is not based on Jewish law.

What is stopping the rebuilding of the Third Temple?
“There are no Jewish legal barriers” to rebuilding the temple, Rabbi Chaim Richman says, only political ones." Times of Israel.
The Temple Mount is in Muslim hands and is considered one of their holy places. Management of the Temple Mount by the
'Waqf is one of the arrangements of the status quo. Taking the Temple Mount by force or blowing up any of the Muslim holy
shrines on the Mount followed by a violent overthrow of the Waqf would endanger the lives of Jews in Jerusalem and around the world.