Introduction and Reports
HIV and AIDS
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. It was first discovered in early 1980s.
t affects a type of white blood cell (T Cell).
The HIV virus is best know for targeting the T cells having chances of attacking the cells of the
brain, nervous system, digestive system and lymphatic system. Hence the T cells can be referred
to as the brain operator of our system, and when these cells are infected our body becomes weak
and cannot battle bacteria, cancer, fungi and other parasites, When T cells are infected with HIV
it kills the strength of a human progressive and recovery system.
Once HIV infects your T cells then it works like a factory reproducing itself to grow the virus inside the body, which
eventually results in the virus moving into the bloodstream. HIV can destroy all fresh T cells repeating its process of
reproduction in this manner. The immune system then gets absolutely weekend multiplying this virus all over you,
this can be termed as “opportunistic infection”.
A person with a HIV-weekend immune system comes down with one or more of rare opportunistic infections, with
low T cell counts it can be diagnosed as an AIDS patient, ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICENCY SYNDROME. AIDS can
be thought of the most severe form of HIV disease, all but a handful of medical experts now believe that HIV is the
primary agent that leads to the development of AIDS.
Transmission of HIV virus
Large scale transmit of this virus occur due to unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of drug injections, infected
used in transfusion, and in some occasions through pregnancy when the virus is passed from mother to child.
Sources: Mehjabeen Poonawala - Ph.D. Research Scholar (Foods and Nutrition).
EU Report on HIV/AIDS, 2007
lower estimates of HIV infection worldwide but a rise in HIV/Aids cases in Europe and Asia
The rate of new cases of HIV/Aids in the European Union has almost doubled since 1999, a EU report shows.
Estonia has by far the highest rate of diagnosis, followed by Portugal and the UK, according to the European Centre
for Disease Prevention and Control. The ECDC says that the proportion of new cases reported per million inhabitants
went up across the EU from 28.8 to 57.5 in 2006. In Estonia, the rate last year reached 504 per million people.
In non-EU areas of Europe the number of cases is also continuing to rise, with particularly high rates in Ukraine
(288 per million) and Russia (275 per million).
ECDC director Zsuzsanna Jakab said the true European figures are likely to be much higher it is estimated almost
one third of people living with HIV in Europe are unaware they are infected. In raw figures the number of newly diagnosed
cases reported in the UK last year is by far the highest at 8,925 followed by 5,750 in France and 2,718 in
HIGHEST EU RATES
Estonia - 504.2 per million
Portugal - 205 per million
UK - 148.8 per million
Latvia - 130.3 per million
Luxembourg - 118.9 per million
LOWEST EU RATES
Bulgaria - 11.9 per million
Czech Republic - 9.1 per million
Romania - 8.3 per million
Hungary - 8 per million
Slovakia - 5 per million
A recent report from UNAids revealed much lower estimates of HIV infection worldwide than had been previously
used - from nearly 40 million to 33 million. But for people living in Europe and parts of Asia, the numbers tell a different
There were 26,220 newly diagnosed cases of HIV reported last year in 25 of the EU member states which gives an
average of 67 cases per million.
Africa has by far the most number of cases, while parts of Asia have the fastest growing rates of infections.
Some 22.5m in sub-Saharan Africa have HIV but the number of new cases - 1.7m a year - is a smaller increase
than in previous years.
HIV PREVALENCE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 2003-7
22.5m (68%) out of 33.2m people globally with HIV
61% are women
More than three-quarters of all Aids-related deaths in 2007
Southern Africa worst-affected in the region - prevalence above 15% in eight countries
South Africa has more HIV infections than any other country in the world
But HIV prevalence in most of region has reached or is approaching plateau